the end of Markets?

from urbanism class with Alexander Garvin. history of retail.

markets. open air ones. such a vital sense of community and interactions. what happened to them? in the US they are history.

in the US markets gave way to department stores and shopping centers.

key takeaways:

need a destination. anchor. keys include transportation, time, flow-width, rain?

flow, interactions,

need: an urban shopping place. e.g. shaker square. willing to give up air conditioning? (recreated street with parking below?)

20 minute parking! on street parking

leave place for other market needs to develop around.

6 keys to success: location, image, financing, time(season’s, late night,) entrepreneurship


so, from a fabric of individuals and locally grown to chains and all-in-one of department stores

department stores chase people, which means going to the suburbs.

what are the origin of department stores. could be france. why are they so popular?

department stores innovated:

  • Goods were sold at fixed prices,
  • with guarantees allowing exchanges and refunds
  • home deliveries

remember that when department stores start, together with arcades, they help get customer off the street. no more manure, which was a big problem in large cities.

shopping center was invented in KC by nichols and popularized convenient transportation:

again, key is motor vehicles.

getting goods to the stores and customers. customers save time? can carry goods easily. can shop less frequently. give up local and fresh.


community, neighborhood, regional

in development, need to segment market along time and income.

victor gruen was king of shopping centers. his first mall was southdale in MN

Southdale was meant as the kernel of a full-fledged community. The mall was commercially successful, but the original design was never fully-realized, as the intended apartment buildings, schools, medical facilities, park and lake were not built.

hudson’s in detroit was 2nd largest department store. it was a shopping center pioneer. northland.

bennet. shopping centre as a frame for interaction between customer and merchandise. size matters. got to create a comfortable feeling for customer. think of sense of time

shopping arcades vs malls

why did arcades lose it? size? they started too early. size of shops. in providence, RI can not rent third floor. no elevators. flow more difficult? think of milan duomo gallaria Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy. in late 19th century they did become poplular. fire codes changed it again. clevleand, moscow, london, milan.


air conditioned gallaria

Mix use

lately mix uses. residential, offices, hotels. alos, kiosks enter the scene

think water tower place, chicago 1975 or time warner on columbus circle. concert hall and public transport included.

add entertainment

urban marketplace

a new retailing form, urban marketplace.

ben thompson. re-invented the push cart. looking for interactions and action.

good sales per sq foot. department stores could not fit in quincy market.

became tourist destination. ghirardelli’s square in sf

late 80’s

new forms of retails. big box retailers. power centers. value retailers.

entertainment based

urban shopping centre

look at easton in columbus OH. a whole community. public square. forum, fountain.

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