city magnets

gravin urbanism class

1893 chicago columbian world’s fair attracted 20% of US population, 27m visitors

key takeways:

get involved in local zoning and planing commission

pedestrians seperated from motor vehicles? rail into the city seems good. highway, not so. effect of ring roads in european cities  (knocked down walls). Coppenhagen as a great balance. peak hour: bikes are used more than public transport more than private cars.

building removed from street to keep sunlight, sky? ‘streets no longer work’ le corbusier.

think of the areas used. what have you taken out (opportunity cost), what happens at the edge? how does the magnet relate to the city.

do not supply everything on site – create spillover. this will create private market reaction. not enough parking places as a plus. what’s next? gateway arch in stl and javitz center in NYC, state capital in denver (great public spaces for photographs, no one walks them). little impact. people get back in the car and drive away. time of day matters. can you increase utilization? so not just location, but also linkage, time, size.


grouping of magnets

Cleveland 1900-1920

many public buildings. grand public spaces and buildings. civic center, mall, post office, court

not entire plan worked. not all controlled by planners (railroad)

e.g. government employees leave friday at 5 pm till monday. what about the weekend?

recently jacob’s field and gund arena. where do they park? where do they buy beer? re-use of office space in after-hours. impact, 1994, 6 restauarants within 2000 ft. within a few years, new neighborhood, 36 restaurants, 6 hotels. outdone by conventions


robert moses, planing czar

Lincoln center – proposals included st patick’s vaticn like and st marco venice

theaters are great magnets. thousands of people out on the streets after show, restaurants

intentionally did not have enough parking and eating places

cultural magnets and spectacles include sports arenas

conventions are a great magnet. in philadelphia with a great shopping center. locals have cars, visitors do not

theater district, museums. holon, israel, many museums, most visitors on saturdays, little interaction.


city grow from 800K to 2000K in his lifetime. how?

flow – people spend time getting water. sewer was running in the streets.

he added water supply and santiation.

connections – traffic. streets, railroads, connections. move people into and within city. create interactions. squares, museums, public markets, railway stations, metro. enterenaces as public art, small business and life within. pave roads. what do you do with horse manur?

several railway stations vs one big one

St Louis

barthlume – great planner 1947. thougth of neighborhood airfields. population dropped, not increased.

philadelphia, swimming pools within walking distances

redevleopment: Quincy market first one to work in boston, later baltimore harbor

gruen plan kalamazoo. ring roads

managing the environment

self tax for business district improvement. own security, sanitation – clean streets pick trash, lighting

toronto suburb warwick village 1980’s

downtown killed by suburbs, note most voters are outside downtown, city serves them.


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